The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research institute located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. MIT has five schools and one college, containing a total of 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific and technological research.
Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. MIT’s early emphasis on applied technology at the undergraduate and graduate levels lead to close cooperation with industry but curricular reforms under Karl Compton and Vannevar Bush in the 1930s re-emphasized basic scientific research. MIT was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934 and researchers were involved in efforts to develop computers, radar, and inertial guidance in connection with defense research during World War II and the Cold War. Post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian.
The current 168-acre (68.0 ha) campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile (1.6 km) along the northern bank of the Charles River basin. In the past 60 years, MIT’s educational disciplines have expanded beyond the physical sciences and engineering into fields like biology, economics, linguistics, political science, and management.
MIT enrolled 4,232 undergraduates and 6,152 graduate students for 2009–2010. It employs about 1,009 faculty members.76 Nobel Laureates, 50 National Medal of Science recipients, and 35 MacArthur Fellows are currently or have previously been affiliated with the university. MIT has a strong entrepreneurial culture and the aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would be the seventeenth largest economy in the world. MIT managed $718.2 million in research expenditures and an $8.0 billion endowment in 2009.
The Engineers sponsor 33 sports, most of which compete in the NCAA Division III’s New England Women’s and Men’s Athletic Conference; the Division I rowing programs compete as part of the EARC and EAWRC.
Robert Engman’s Möbius Strip hangs from the crown of the Barker Engineering Library’s reading room located inside the Great Dome
MIT’s graduate program is a comprehensive doctoral program having high coexistence with undergraduate programs in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields as well as offering professional degrees.The Institute offers graduate programs leading to academic degrees such as the Master of Science, Doctor of Philosophy, and Doctor of Science; professional degrees such as Master of Business Administration, Master of Finance, Master of Architecture, Master of Engineering, and Engineer’s Degree; and interdisciplinary graduate programs such as the MD/PhD (with Harvard Medical School). Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program. Doctoral students are supported by fellowships (30%), research assistantships (49%), and teaching assistantships (13%).
MIT awarded 1,474 master’s degrees and 607 doctoral degrees in 2009. The School of Engineering is the most popular academic division enrolling 45.4% of graduate students, followed by the Sloan School of Management (17.3%), School of Science (17.3%), School of Architecture and Planning (9.5%), School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (4.9%), and Whitaker College of Health Sciences (2.5%). The largest graduate degree programs are the Sloan M.B.A, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Mechanical Engineering, and Chemical Engineering.